Squamous Cell Carcinoma

My comments:

Immunotherapy for Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29502288/?from_term=squamous+cell+carcinoma+immunotherapy&from_pos=2

Study - Acid Sphingomyelinase Activity as an Indicator of the Cell Stress in HPV-positive and HPV-negative Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

HPV prevalence was about 35% overall in all oral and head and neck SCCs studied in this article (38.1% in oral and 24.2% in head and neck SCC):

Article - HPV in oral squamous cell carcinoma vs head and neck squamous cell carcinoma biopsies: a meta-analysis(1988–2007)​

Hyperthermia is more effective in HPV-negative SCC than in HPV-positive SCC: 

Study - Susceptibility of Epithelial Tumour Cell Lines to Hyperthermia

(Hyperthermia was more effective in destroying cancer cells when HPV was not present.)

Novirin kills viruses like HPV... 

Study - Human Papillomavirus (HPV): Systemic Treatment With Gene-Eden-VIR/Novirin Safely and Effectively Clears Virus

HPV-related SCCs of head and neck have better prognoses than SCCs unrelated to HPV. 

Article - HPV-related Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck: An Update on Testing in Routine Pathology Practice

"Oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma caused by high-risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV) is now a well-recognized tumor entity whose incidence is on the rise. Most HPV-related oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas have a distinct histomorphology, and most patients fit a typical clinical profile. Importantly, HPV-related oropharyngeal carcinoma patients overall have significantly improved outcomes when compared to their HPV-negative counterparts, and the differences in tumor biology may soon lead to modifications in how they are treated. While high-risk HPV can be detected in a significant minority of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas across anatomic subsites in the head and neck, it has become clear in recent years that the biologically and clinically favorable features are limited to tumors that harbor transcriptionally active, high-risk HPV, something that occurs predominantly (but certainly not exclusively) in the oropharynx. It is now acknowledged that detecting transcriptionally active, high-risk HPV is a necessity in routine clinical practice, but there is considerable confusion among pathologists and clinicians alike about the subsites and settings in which HPV testing should be performed. Compounding this lack of clarity is the fact that there are multiple HPV testing options available, but currently there is no clear consensus on which test or combination of tests is optimal for routine diagnostic use. This review serves as an update for practicing pathologists on the current status of HPV (and surrogate marker) testing in head and neck cancers."

Based on these articles helpful treatments for SCC may include Novirin if the cancer cells are HPV-positive and hyperthermia if HPV-negative. ​

Study - Inhibitory Effect of Black Tea on the Growth of Established Skin Tumors in Mice: Effects on Tumor Size, Apoptosis, Mitosis and Bromodeoxyuridine Incorporation Into DNA

"In four separate experiments, oral administration of black tea inhibited the growth of papillomas (increase in tumor volume/mouse) by an average of 35%, 37%, 41% and 48%, respectively... In [another] experiment, tumor growth (increase in tumor volume/mouse) was inhibited by 70%. Histological examination revealed that tea-treated mice had a 58% decrease in the number of nonmalignant tumors (primarily keratoacanthomas)/mouse and a 54% decrease in the number of squamous cell carcinomas/mouse. In addition, administration of black tea decreased the volume per tumor by 60% for nonmalignant tumors and by 84% for carcinomas. Mechanistic studies with tumors from these mice revealed that administration of black tea decreased the bromodeoxyuridine labeling index in squamous cell papillomas, keratoacanthomas and squamous cell carcinomas by 56%, 45% and 35%, respectively, and the apoptosis index was increased by 44%, 100% and 95%, respectively. Administration of black tea decreased the mitotic index in keratoacanthomas and squamous cell carcinomas by 42% and 16%, respectively. The results indicate that oral administration of black tea to tumor-bearing mice inhibited proliferation and enhanced apoptosis in nonmalignant and malignant skin tumors."

Study - Protection Against Malignant Conversion of Chemically Induced Benign Skin Papillomas to Squamous Cell Carcinomas in SENCAR Mice by a Polyphenolic Fraction Isolated From Green Tea

"In these protocols, preapplication of GTP (6 mg/animal) 30 min prior to skin application of acetone, BPO, or 4-NQO resulted in 14, 31, and 29% protection, respectively, in terms of percentage of mice with carcinomas, and 20, 35, and 43% protection in terms of number of carcinomas/mouse. In these experiments, a BPO- and 4-NQO-enhanced rate of malignant conversion was also found to be decreased significantly by the skin application of GTP; however, such effects of GTP were less profound in the cases of spontaneous malignant conversion. The results of this study suggest that, in addition to its chemopreventive effects against tumor initiation and promotion stages of multistage carcinogenesis, green tea also possesses significant protective effects against tumor progression, specifically tumor progression induced by BPO and 4-NQO.​"

Causes

Use of hydrochlorothiazide and risk of skin cancer in a large nested case-control study in Spain

In this European Mediterranean population, a high cumulative use of HCTZ was related to an increased risk of KC with a clear dose-response pattern.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34015159/

Tuberculosis
 

A rare case of coexistence of metastasis from head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and tuberculosis within a neck lymph node

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26510425/

"The suspect was confirmed by a positive anamnestic finding of a previous tuberculosis infection. The granulomatous reaction may be associated with many types of tumor, and can be found in the draining lymph nodes. The possibility that this reaction is also due to a tuberculosis infection should be kept in mind for elderly oncology patient."

Cutaneous tuberculosis and squamous-cell carcinoma

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21738972/

Long lasting, misdiagnosed or untreated cutaneous tuberculosis may lead to different forms of cancer. This case report involves a 74-year old male farmer with lupus vulgaris on his face. During anti-tuberculosis treatment he developed a tumor on his forehead, which was histologically confirmed as a squamous cell carcinoma.

Interesting association of squamous cell carcinoma of soft palate and tuberculous lymphadenitis

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25503357/

"Tuberculosis may mimic head and neck cancers and vice versa, and both conditions may have atypical clinical and radiological presentations. Our case points out the need to consider tuberculosis in the differential diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck."

Paracoccidioidomycosis mimicking squamous cell carcinoma on the dorsum of the tongue and review of published literature

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24718811/

Postmenopausal bleeding: squamous cell carcinoma of cervix with coexisting endometrial tuberculosis

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/14564457/

"A case of squamous cell carcinoma of cervix co-existent with endometrial tuberculosis presenting as postmenopausal bleeding is being reported for its rarity. The atrophic postmenopausal endometrium is thought to be poorly supportive of tubercle bacilli. Following a radical Wertheim's hysterectomy patient had a hectic postoperative period, which responded to antitubercular treatment. Diagnosis of tuberculosis in this case was made on histopathology postoperatively and confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on scrapes from the granulomas obtained by microdissection."

Primary oral tuberculosis on the tongue mimicking squamous cell carcinoma

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29332657/

Lupus vulgaris with squamous cell carcinoma

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18001418/

Long-standing cases of lupus vulgaris may be complicated by squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). We describe a patient who had undiagnosed lupus vulgaris for 35 years until she developed SCC on the lesion of lupus vulgaris.